Tuesday, December 18, 2007

History of Furniture

Furniture are the equipments in a room, such as bed, chair, table and chests, that usually gives a room a particular function, such as that of bedrooms, dining rooms or kitchen. They are made according to the dimensions of the human figure.

Historically, the most common material for making furniture is wood, but other materials, such as metal and stone, have also been used. Furniture designs have reflected the fashion of every era from ancient times to today. Whereas in most periods a single style dominated, a diversity of old and new styles influences present-day design.

History of Furniture –
Furniture must have existed at least since the Neolithic period (7000 to 2000 BC), although none survives. A history of furniture therefore begins with the oldest surviving examples, those from the 4th to 6th Dynasty (2680-2255 BC) in Egypt of the old Kingdom.

Egyptian Furniture
The Egyptian bed carriage
The dry Egyptian climate and the elaborate burial practices of the ancient Egyptians both contributed to the preservation of their furniture, which includes stools, tables, chair, and couches. Egyptian wall paintings insight into the design and use of furniture in aristocratic Egyptian life. In both design and construction the methods used in ancient Egypt are followed wherever furniture is made today. In large pieces, particularly seating and tables, the mortise-and-tendon construction familiar in ancient Egypt is still in use, although the tendon may be replaced by a dowel to speed up production. In ancient Egypt the more delicate boxes and chests were constructed by dovetailing, a technique the persists in contemporary work. One ancient Egyptian stool illustrated on a wooden panel (c. 2800 BC Egyptian Museum, Cairo) from the tomb of Hesire has animal legs as the supports. It does not differ much from a chair (c. 1325 BC, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb of the New Kingdom pharaoh Tutankhamen.

A chair, table, couch, and canopy (c. 2600 BC, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb at Giza of the 4th-Dynasty Queen Hetepheres were reconstructed from remnants of their original gold sheathing. The chair has animal legs, a solid back, and arm supports of open work panels in papyrus patterns. The bed, higher at the head, has a headrest and a footboard. The relief decoration on some of the furniture consists of symbols of gods and scenes of religious significance. The design of other surviving tables and stools is restrained, with legs that are plain but beautifully made. It is conceivable that ornament could originally have been applied in the form of stamped metal sheathing; however, wall paintings do illustrate simple, upholstered pieces.

Extant examples and illustrations from wall paintings suggest the broad scope of decoration used on Egyptian furniture. Gold sheets were applied to legs of chair and tables; inlays of ivory and other materials were employed on panels of chests and other surfaces. The basic notion of forms with legs as anthropomorphic and of storage pieces as buildings in miniature was popular in ancient Egypt, and in succeeding cultures.

Mesopotamian Furniture
Although virtually no examples of Mesopotamian furniture have survived, an idea of the appearance of such pieces as tables, stools, and thrones can be formed from depictions in relief’s and inlays dating from about 3500 to 800 BC. A Sumerian standard – a box on a pole (c. 3500-3200 BC, Iraq Museum, Baghdad) – has shell inlays depicting very simple chairs and thrones. By contrast, a surviving Sumerian harp (c. 2685 BC, University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia) has rich, colourful inlays and a bearded bull’s head carved in the round and covered in gold foil. A stele made about 2300 BC shows a backless throne that appears to have been elegantly upholstered but had very plain straight legs. The furniture shown in a relief (9th century BC, British Museum, London) of Ashumasirpal II and his queen is more elaborate, with tables and thrones supported on both trumped-shaped and animal from legs and embellished with relief decoration.

Minoan and Mycernaean Furniture
Surviving examples of furniture in the roughly contemporaneous civilizations of the Mycenaeans on mainland Greece and the Minoans in the Aegean Islands are equally scarce. Representations in relief on Minoan rings and in the form of small bronze and terracotta pieces provide most of the evidence. One splendid exception is the gypsum throne in the Throne Room at Knossos (c. 1600-1400 BC). The extant exaples – stools, chairs, couches, benches, and chests – do not suggest the use of much elaborate decoration. One or two tablets have been discovered, however, that make reference to inlays and gold embellishments on furniture. A single ivory leg from Thebes is also elaborately ornamented.

Greek Furniture
As little Greek Furniture has survived, it is best known from paintings and sculpture. Its appearance can be reconstructed from details on vase paintings, grave stele (tombstones), and other relief sculpture such as that in the frieze from the Parthenon. A few marble thrones have survived, as have isolated wooden elements from actual Greek pieces. The available evidence suggests that Greek designers did not follow the free forms of the earlier Aegean examples. The tendency to base furniture ornament on architectural decoration, and the general symmetry and regularity of overall design, appear to follow Egyptian precedent Nevertheless, although they resemble each other, the Greek couch is quite different in function from the Egyptian bed. Used for eating as well as resting, the Greek couch was made with the horizontal reclining area at table height, rather than low off the ground and at an incline. The headrest was often curved to support pillows, no footrest was used. Although the animal form leg is seen occasionally, legs were more often a trumpet form or a rectangular design based on a columnar form. Various stools were used for sitting. Folding stools with X-shaped legs and fixed stools with straight legs were made at least from the 6th century BC to the Hellenistic era.

Functional and plain example were to be seen as well as the more elaborate. More distinctively and innovation of Greek designers is the chair known as the Klismos, a light (or easy) chair with a back. Comfortable and very popular, it was used most in the Archaic and Classical periods. The klismos is essentially plain, with legs curving out from the seat and a back support consisting of a simple rectangular panel curved inwards from sides to center. Tables depicted in paintings are generally small. Rectangular tops appear to have been the more popular type; most often the support consists of three legs – mostly simple and curved but sometimes carved in animal forms – that were at times reinforced with stretchers near the top. Literary references and illustrations suggest that typical tables were light. They were moved in to serve individuals at dinner and removed after the meal, to allow space for entertainers to perform Round tables of Greek origin were made in the Hellenistic period.

Chests in ancient Greece varied in size from those made on a miniature scale to monumental examples, and, in design, from those with plain flat tops to the more architectural style with gabled lids. They were made of wood, of bronze, and of ivory, with architectural decoration. The chest shapes are a long-lived phenomenon; they were first found in ancient Egypt and then became traditional, remaining evident in 19th-century folk examples.

Roman Furniture
Reconstruction of a Roman Couch
At first glance, Roman furniture design appears to have been based on Greek Prototypes. In the first century AD opulent Roman design reflected strong Greek influence. The ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum provide clear evidence of handsome domestic architecture and show the setting that required furniture. Pompeiian frescoes illustrate the use of furniture and suggest that a wider variety of forms was known. The source and date of new storage pieces that had been introduced in Hellenistic Greece are questionable. No secure evidence confirms the theory that cupboards were introduced then. Roman frescoes featuring cupboards may be copies of Greek paintings, but a cupboard from the House of Lararium in Herculaneum has survived.

Extant examples indicate that more marble and bronze furniture was made in Roman that in Greek times; also, the designs were more complex, even though they employed the same basic vocabulary of ornament. In addition to the small tables common in Greece, larger, rectangular examples and round tables of various sizes were used. More practical designs were also introduced; tables that could be taken apart and others with folding bases. The richness of elegant inlays and elaborate work in ivory, bronze, marble, and wood are mentioned in Roman literature, and enough fragments exist to prove the accuracy of the early descriptions.

Byzantine and Early Modieval Furnture
Throne of Bishop Maximian
Although an abundant quantity of artifacts from Early Christian and Byzantine times survive, there is strangely little evidence of furniture either in the East of the West. Byzantine art has been much admired; the richness of imperial churches in Istanbut,, Turkey, and in Ravenna, Italy, indicates that there must have been a parallel magnificence in the furnishings of the palatial homes of ruling families. Byzantine mosaics suggest that, although classical ornament may have become stylized, it was still used between about AD 400 and 1000. A signle Byzantine monument, the Throne of Bishop Maximian (c. 550, Archiepiscopal Museum, Ravenna), a masterpiece of ivory relief sculpture completely coverning a wooden frame, was designed for ecclesiastical use, but the throne reveals the rich, stylized ornament of the period, and it suggests the manner in which secular Byzantine furniture design must have been conceived.

The so-called Throne of Dagobert 1 (c. 600, Bibiotheque Nationale, Paris), a bronze folding stool, has animal legs familiar from Roman examples but rendered far more boldly. Manuscripts and an occasional mosaic dating from between the 5th and the 9th century provide evidence that, although Roman influence persisted, changes in taste inspired artisans to render detail more abstractly and simply. Flat patterns replaced the high relief of Roman times. Conservatism, a strong element in the manuscript illuminations of the period, was also evident in its furniture.

The years 1000 to about 1200 – the Romanesque period – are known for the regeneration of spirituality and for the large number of new churches built in western Europe, but little evidence exists of the actual furniture of the period. Romanesque furniture design is best known from the assortment of 12th-century ornament are used. A few surviving, in which simplified, schematic interpretations of Graeco-Roman ornament are used. A few surviving turned-post (lathe-turned) chairs from 12th-cetury Scandinavia are Romanesque in spirit Wooden chests, made somewhat later, are carved in schematic, geometric pattern that continue the Romanesque style.

Gothic Furniture
Gothic architecture involved view, dramatic conceptions of space through the use of pointed arches, flying buttresses, and other radical innovations, but 12th-century furniture design was not influenced by the new style. The new cathedrals were expressions of affluence, but for their interiors the rich patrons of the Church appear to have enjoyed simple, functional oak furniture draped with tapestries. The decorative elements of the Gothic, particularly the pointed arch, were not seen in the design of furniture unit about 1400. Then, for more than a century, tracery and arches were carved on the panels of chairs, on chests, and on tables of every size.

In the 15th century a few new forms were introduced. One was a type of sideboard, with a small storage area set on tall legs; it had display space on the top of the enclosure as well as on a shelf below it. Cupboards were made with either one or two tiers of storage areas enclosed by doors. Another important storage piece was the armoire, with tall doors enclosing a 1.5 to 2-m (4 to 6 ft) area. Along with such architectural motifs as arches, columns, and foliate patterns, appeared decorative carving based on hanging textiles, a motif known as line fold. The Gothic style, primarily a northern European phenomenon, remained significant in furniture design into the early 16th century.

Renaissance Furniture
By contrast to the skill and invention lavished on painting, sculpture, and architecture in Renaissance Italy, Italian furniture design in the 15th tendered to be simple and functional.

Italian Reraissance Cessone
The first innovation in Italian Renaissance furniture was the elaborately decorated chest known as the cassone, with its gilt, stucco, and painted decoration based on Classical prototypes. The form of the cassone was to some degree inspired by Roman sarcophagi; some early examples, however, had scenes illustrating the international Gothic romance, Le Roman de la rose. Interiors in 15th-century paintings, such as those in the Dream of St Ursula (1490-1495, Accademia, Venice) by Vittore Carpaccio and the Birth of the Virgin (1485-1494, Santa Maria Novella, Florence) by Domenico Ghirlandaio, suggest the restraint of Italian furniture design before the High Renaissance at the end of the 15th centure.

Rich marquetry, imaginative carving, and the use of walnut in place of oak (which has been preferred for earlier work) characterized the more flamboyant efforts of the 1500s. A greater variety of forms and richer ornament were employed than in earlier periods. Portable folding chairs, with seats of tapestry or leather, were revived. New solid-backed side chairs were developed; these have carved backs and instead of legs, solid carved panels as supports.

Even richer decoration is found on 16th-century French furniture, which reflected Renaissance influence. Renaissance styles and ideas were brought to France by Italian artists working at the courts of Francis I and his son Henry II. During the region of Henry II, designs by the architect Jacques du Cerceau were adapted for furniture. His complex juxtapositions of classical motifs were used for decorating furniture panels in the new Renaissance taste. A major figure, the cabinet marker Hugues Sambin, published an influential folio of designs that featured works richly carved with ingenious designs. Distinctive examples reveal a basic understanding of the new classicism.

The impetus of designers working in the 16th century carried the style into the 17th century. Characteristic tables with thin columnar legs and chairs with paneled backs, first made in the 1560s and 1570s, contined to be made after 1600. In the first decades of the 17th century, changes in design became subtle. During the reign (1610-1643) of Louis XIII, furniture forms followed 16th-century models but with greater delicacy and with an increased use of rate ebony and rich tortoiseshell veneers instead of carving.

Englished Renaissance deign was essentially simpler than that of France. Characteristic were less elegant carved detail, simpler decoration in turned parts, and flatter, more stylized foliate motifs. Oak contined to be the predominant wood for furniture making in England in the 16th century. As in France, interest in Renaissance design persisted until about the mid-17th century in England.

The Netherlands
This general interest is documented in several 17th-century publications. Two books of designs influential in the early 17th century were published in Amsterdam by Jan Vredeman de Vries and Crispin van de Passe. Dutch cabinetmakers created furniture closer in spirit to English examples than to French ones. The Dutch were conservative, and Renaissance desidens were still popular in the 1650s and later.. One special form – the armoire, with a bold overhanging cornice crowing it and with doors decorated with deep moldings – is characteristically. Dutch and continued to be made over a long period by Dutch settlers in North America. Dutch influence – probably because of the design books – can be seen in other northern European furniture, although each area developed distinctive designs for popular forms.

In Spain influences were more varied. There, design was guided as much by Renaissance new ideas as by the long local Moorish tradition. Although Spain has long been free of direct connections with Islam, the delicate patterns on tiles and leather, and the bold combinations of wood, iron, and gold (or gilding) that remained popular there in the 16th and 17th centuries, bear out the continuation of Moorish Influence.

Chinese Furniture of the Ming Dynasty
The 17th century was a period of growing cosmopolitanism. Trade routes had opened a century earlier and were becoming sources for new ideas and new materials. The 16th and 17th centuries were an idoal time for the West to discover Chinese furniture, for during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) Chinese furniture making was at its height. Tall cabinets, graceful tables, chairs, and benches were made in subtle designs. Straight legs on tables and chairs were often finished with delicately curved edges. Brackets and stretchers used as reinforcements added special decorative elements, these were restrained but showed to advantage the cabinetmaker’s understanding of the beauty of wood. Oriental decoration was well known in the 17th century and was probably and important influence on later Western design. Lacquer chests were used extensively in Western settings, beginning in the 17th century. A number of examples have gilt stands, which were made in the West to adapt the lacquer chest to Western needs.

Baroque Furniture
Baroque Antwerp Cabinet
Baroque design are most evident in furniture of the late 17th century, decades after the Italian Baroque architects Gianlorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini had first introduced their innovative approaches in Rome. In the early part of the century the new style had influenced surfaces but not shapes. In the last quarter, however, a growing number of changes took place. Among these was an increased use of caryatids as supports, along with scroll-shaped and spiral-turned legs that were different from the earlier Renaissan models.

At the very end of the 17th century, curved fronts were first used on large pieces of case furniture such as wardrobes and chests of drawers, reflecting the new Baroque architecture. In chairs, rich carving on new high-backed froms came into fashion. Both English and Continental examples were made with caned seats and backs as alternative to upholstery. Simple variations of these chairs were made with turned parts in place of the carved areas, but the same tall backs were used.
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A partition wall may be defined as a wall or division made up of bricks, studding, glass or other such material and provided for the purpose of dividing one room or portion of a room from another.

Generally, partition walls are designed as non-load bearing walls. It may be of folding, collapsible or fixed type.

Types of Partition walls:
Depending upon the material used, partition walls may be divided into the following types:
1. Brick partitions
2. Hollow brick partitions of clay, terra-cotta or concrete
3. Glass partitions
4. Concrete partitions – plain or reinforced
5. Metal lath and plaster partitions
6. A.C. sheet or G.I. sheet partitions
7. Timber partitions

Brick Partitions:
They may be construction with plain bricks. Reinforced bricks, bricks nogged or hollow bricks.

Glass Partitions:
These may be made from sheet glass or hollow glass blocks. In case of sheet glass partitions, sheets of glass are fixed in the frame work of wooden or metal numbers dividing entire are in a number of panels.

Timber Partitions:
This type of partition consists of a wooden framework either supported on the floor below or by side walls. With the introduction of new building materials, use of timber partitions is getting gradually reduced these days.

Metal Lath and Plaster Partitions:
Metal lath and plaster when properly laid forms a reinforced partition wall, which is thin, strong durable and is considerably fire-resistant.

A.C. Sheet or G.I. Sheet Partitions:
Partition walls constructed from asbestos cement sheeting or galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members are mostly adopted in works of temporary character.

Concrete Partitions:
Plain or reinforced partition walls constructed in concrete, plain or blocks precast wall in advance of the commencement of work.

Movable Partitions:
Movable partitions are used where the walls of a room are frequently opened to form one large floor area. In this system, there are three types of partitions:

1. Sliding: Sliding partitions consists of series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the floor and ceiling. The machine if the partition is similar to those of sliding doors.
2. Sliding & folding: Sliding and folding partitions operate in a similar manner to sliding folding doors. They are normally used for smaller spans.
3. Screens: Screens are usually constructed of a metal or timber frame. It is fixed with plywood and chipboard inside. The screen supported with legs for free standing and easy movement.

Movable Partition:

Concrete Partition:

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Monday, December 17, 2007


DESIGN: There are three principles of Design which are as follows:-

Balance is the first design principle the classical example of balance is the pair of scales in the hands of blind justice. The principle of balance in design appeals to a since of equilibrium. Interior spaces and their elements of enclosure, furnishings, lighting and accessories often include a min of shapes, sizes, colors and textures. How these elements are organized is a response to functional needs and aesthetic desires. At the same time, these elements should be arranged to active visual balance a state of equilibrium among the visual forces projected by the elements. The weights of the furniture and the other object in a room are determine by size, shape, color and texture, all of which must be considered in adjusting the balance characteristics that will increase the visual weight of an element and attract our attention are:
 Irregular or contrasting shapes
 Bright colors and contrasting textures.
 Large dimensions and unusual proportions
 Elaborate details

Our perception of a room and the composition of its elements is altered as we use it and move through its space. Our perspective varies as our point of view sifts from there to there. A room also undergoes changes over time as it is illuminated by the light of day and lamps at night occupied by people and modified by time itself. The visual balance among the elements in a space should therefore be considered in three dimensions and be strong enough to withstand the changes brought about through time and use.
There are three types of balance:
Symmetrical, Asymmetrical and Radial.

i)Symmetrical balance:
Symmetrical balance is also called as formal compassing balance. Symmetrical balance results from the arrangement of identical elements, corresponding in shape, size and relative position, about a common line or axis. It is also known as axial or bilateral symmetry. Symmetrical balance most often results in a quit, reposed and stable equilibrium which is readily apparent, especially when oriented on a vertical plane. Depending on its spatial relationships, a symmetrical arrangement can either emphasize its central area or focus attention on the terminations of its axis.

This is the drawing of the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre in Angulated, France. A line down the middle of the front face, and everything on either side would be mirror image

It is often possible or desirable to arrange one or more parts of a space in a symmetrical manner and produce local symmetry. Symmetrical groupings within a space are easily recognized and have a quality of wholeness that can serve to simplify or organize the room’s composition. Although asymmetrical balance has more static and stable qualities, it does not need to be dull and uninteresting. This type of balance may be achieved through arrangements in which the objects on either side of the central line are not identical but are of equal weight and importance.

ii) Asymmetrical balance:
This balance is also called informal or active. A Symmetry is recognized as the lack of correspondence in size, shape, color or relative position among the elements of a composition. While a symmetrical composition requires the use of pairs of identical elements, an a symmetrical composition incorporates dissimilar elements.

To achieve an occult or optical balance, an asymmetrical composition must take into account the visual weight or force of each of its elements and employ the principle of leverage in their arrangement. Elements which are visually forceful and attract our attention unusual shapes, bright colors, dark values, variegated textures must be counter balanced by less forceful elements which are larger or placed farther away from the center of the composition.

Example of Asymmetrical balance

Large pieces of furniture must usually be distributed around the room so that the walls and various areas of the room balance one another. All heavy pieces at one end and all lighter pieces on the other would certainly produce an unbalanced design. If this arrangement occurs due to function or some other reasons, color and texture will be vital to re-establish a more pleasing equilibrium.

Asymmetrical balance is not as obvious as symmetry and is often more visually active and dynamic. It is capable of expressing movements, change, even exuberance. It is also more flexible than symmetry and can adapt more readily to varying conditions of function, space and circumstance.

Asymmetrical balance by color

Asymmetrical balance by shape

(iii) Radial balance:
The balance results from the arrangement of elements about a center point. It produces a centralized composition, which stresses the middle ground as a focal point. The elements can focus inward toward the center, face outward from the center, or simply be placed about a central element.

Example for Radial Balance

B. Continuity or Rhythm:
The second principle of design is continuity or rhythm. The design principle of rhythm is based on the repetition of elements in space and time. This repetition not only creates visual unity but also induces a rhythmic continuity of movement that a viewer’s eyes and mind can follow along a path, within a composition or around a space. When the elements of a design are arranged to make the eye travel from one part to another, the design has movement. If the eye moves smoothly and easily, the motion is rhythmic. This principle of rhythm is an exiting one to work with because the effects are interesting and dramatics.

There are several methods of producing rhythm in a design.
- Continuous line
- Repetition
- Progression-Gradation
- Radiation
- Alteration

Continuous Line:
Lines compel the eye to follow the directions they take. This powerful quality may be employed in various ways to control the design of a room is usually composed off many different lines but a predominance of one type will cause the eye to move in that direction. Continuous line has a flowing quality. The continuity of the line may occasionally be broken but the gaps are small and the eye moves on to the next section in a rhythmical manner.

The simplest form of repetition consists of the regular spacing of identical elements along a linear path. While this pattern can be quite monotonous, it can also be useful in establishing a background rhythm for foreground elements or in defining a textured line, border, or trim.

Progression – Gradation:
A progression through a series of intermediate step will carry the eye from one end of the scale to the other. This principle may be applied through gradual changes in line, size, shape, light, pattern, texture or color.

Progression is moving dynamic than repetition. It is the transition or sequence produced by increasing or decreasing one or more quality. It is more easily used with accessories than with large pieces of furniture. Gradations of color are used in some fabrics. The eye will travel from the more dominant tone to the more subdued

Radiation is frequently employed as a basic of design in lighting fixtures, structural elements, and many decorative objects.

An alternating rhythm can be superimposed over a more regular one or the variations can be progressively graded in size or colour value to give direction to the sequence.

C. Emphasis
The third design principle is emphasis. The principle of emphasis assures the coexistence of dominant and subordinate elements in the composition of an interior setting. A design without any dominant elements would be bland and monotonous.

Harmony can be defined as consonance or the pleasing agree meat of parts or combination of parts in a composition. While balance achieves unity thoroughly the careful arrangement of both similar and dissimilar elements. The principle of harmony involves the careful selection of elements that share a common trait or characteristic, such as shape, colour, fixture, or material. It is the repetition of a common trait that produces unity and visual harmony among the elements in an interior setting.

A simple experiment will clearly show how repetition can be used for emphasis patterned fabric that has several colors may be held nest to various samples of solid colors that repeat those in the print. If the pattern has both the blue and green, the green color in the design will be more prominent when the fabric is held nest to the solid green fabric. Nest to the blue fabric, the blue in the design will become more pronounced.

Dominance is most achieved by size. A large form draws attention simply because it is big and therefore, immediately visible. However the size of the focal point should be scaled to the proportion of the room large, high ceiling room needs a dominant focal point that stands on its own and is not lost by the generous size of the room. On the other hand a small room should not contain a missive center of interest that is too large for the room.

All the element of design can be contrasted and thus, draw attention on the center of interest. For example, in a room dominated with smooth textures, one rough textured piece will attract attention.

Emphasis by Contrast

Contrast in color will create emphasis, too. If all things are equal, the object whose color is the most intense or the warmest will attract the viewer’s attentions.

When we walk into an empty room, certain areas will attract our attention first. Therefore, the shape and the structural feature will determine to some extent where the center of interest should be placed. It is important to choose the dominant area rather than some obscure corner of the room. The background and the surrounding areas must be carefully planned to recede rather than advance. Furniture may be arranged to point to the center of interest.

Dominance can be achieved by the unexpected or the unusual line, form, textures, pattern, or color. The unusual stands out. If a blue chair appears in a predominantly yellow room, it is viewed as the exception or the emphasized object. Of course, the rhythm, that unusual element should be repeated.

Establishing the center of interest in a room can be the most entertaining aspect of design. By using the elements and principles of design to lead the eye easily to the center of interest, the designer can achieve unity and a feeling of completeness.

Establishing the center of interest in a room or space can be the most entertaining aspect of design. By using the elements and the principles of design to lead the eye easily to the center of interest, a designer can achieve unity and a feeling of completeness. A successful design is done only when the elements of design are used properly in design and the principles of design are utilized. As a designer, we should remember this words always.
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